Questions and Answers


1.      What is Session type and what are session variables supports 4 types of sessions 1)in process:The session with in application domain under workprocessor is called in process session. The session out side app domain external to workprocessor is called out process session. the external process for maintaining session can be 2)state server 3)sql server 4)custom[it requires manual coding 


2.      What is dependencies type cashing?  

ASP.NET caching is stored in memory 

Cache Dependency  

ASP.NET. Cache Dependencies allow you to make a cached item dependent on another resource, so that when that resource changes, the cached item is removed automatically.  


3.      What is view state?  

the method that the ASP.NET page framework uses to preserve page and control values between round trips. 


4.      Describe Page sequence when they are loaded on Server.  

preIni, Init, InitComplete,preload, load, control events, loadcomplete, 

preRender, preRenderComplete, SaveStateComplete, Render, Unload 


5.      What is master page and child page differentiate?  

Master Page setup basic layout for whole website, child page has the content, and child page load first. 


6.      Experience in ASP.NET MVC?  

Model–View–Controller (MVC) is a type of computer user interface that separates the representation of information from the user's interaction with it 


7.      Anonymous Type: encapsulates readonly properties to an object without explicitly define the object and the object name is created by compiler and not access able to design time.               Var v = New {amount =10} 



1. MVC Page life cycle?

  • 1) Routing.    routes url to its controller and action
  • 2)Url Routing Module intercepts the Request: Whenever you make a request against an ASP.NET MVC application, the request is intercepted by the UrlRoutingModule HTTP Module.
  • 3)MVC Handler Executes.  MVCHandler also inherit from the IHTTPAsyncHandler. When MVC Handler executes it will call the BeginProcessRequest method of the httpAsyncHandler asynchronously.
  • 4) Controller Executes. controller is called and its action called requested by user.
  • 5)Render View Method Called. at last when we call reutrn View() Render View method is called and puts reponse on the page to be displayed.



ASP.NET Web Forms

  • ASP.NET Web Forms use Page controller pattern approach for rendering layout. In this approach, every page has its own controller, i.e., code-behind file that processes the request.
  • In order to achieve stateful behavior, viewstate is used. Purpose was to give developers the same experience of a typical WinForms application.


  • It uses Front Controller approach. That approach means a common controller for all pages processes the requests.

  • ASP.NET MVC approach is stateless as that of the web. So there is no concept of viewstate


3. List out a few different return types of a controller action method?

  • View Result

  • Javascript Result

  • Redirect Result

  • JSON Result

  • Content Result

4. What are the advantages of MVC?

Benefits or the advantages of MVC are as follows:

  • Multiple view support: Because of the separation of the model from the view, the user interface can display multiple views of the same data and at the same time.

  • More Control: The ASP.NET MVC framework provides more control over HTML, JavaScript, and CSS than the traditional WebForms.

  • Lightweight: MVC framework doesn’t use View State and that reduces the bandwidth of the requests to an extent.

5. Explain the role of components Presentation, Abstraction, and Control in MVC?

  • Presentation: It is the visual representation of a specific abstraction within the application.

  • Abstraction: It is the business domain functionality within the application.

  • Control: It is a component that keeps consistency between the abstraction within the system and their presentation to the user. It is also used to communicate with other controls within the system.

6. How to maintain session in MVC?

The session can be maintained in MVC by three ways temp data, viewdata, and view bag.

7. What is MVC Application life cycle?

Any web application has two main execution steps, first understanding the request and depending on the type of the request, sending out an appropriate response. MVC application life cycle has two main phases, first creating the request object and second sending the response to the browser.

Creating the request object includes four basic steps:

  Step 1: Fill route
            Step 2: Fetch route
            Step 3: Request context created
            Step 4: Controller instance created



  1. What is the use of Authorize Attribute?

    Web API provided a built-in authorization filter, i.e. Authorize Attribute. This filter checks whether the user is authenticated or not. If not, the user will see 401 Unauthorized HTTP Status Code.

  2. What is Basic HTTP Authentication?

    Basic HTTP Authentication is a mechanism, where the user is authenticated through the service in which the client pass username and password in the HTTP Authorization request headers. The credentials are formatted as the string “username:password”, based encoded.

How Web API Routes HTTP request to the Controller ASP.NET MVC?

In ASP.NET Web API, HTTP request maps to the controller. In order to determine which action is to invoke, the Web API framework uses a routing table.

What is ASP.NET Web API?

ASP.NET Web API is a framework provided by Microsoft with which we can easily build HTTP services that can reach a broad of clients, ASP.NET Web API provides an ideal platform for building RESTful applications on the .NET Framework.

What is Request Verbs or HTTP Verbs?

  1. HTTP Get: Used to get or retrieve the resource or information only.

  2. HTTP Post: Used to create a new resource on the collection of resources.

  3. HTTP Put: Used to update the existing Response

  4. HTTP Delete: Used to Delete an existing resource.



What is Code First approach in Entity Framework?

In Code First approach we avoid working with the Visual Designer of Entity Framework. In other words the EDMX file is excluded from the solution. So you now have complete control over the context class as well as the entity classes.


What is the purpose of a DBContext class? DATABASE CONECTION AND A SET OF TABLES


What is Entity Framework?

ADO.NET EF is an ORM (object-relational mapping) which creates a higher abstract object model over ADO.NET components. 




1 :: How do you register a component?

Compiling the component, running REGSVR32 MyDLL.dll


2 :: Name and explain the different compatibility types when creating a COM component

No Compatibility ? New GUID created, references from other components will not workProject Compatibility ? Default for a new component Binary Compatibility ? GUID does not change, references from other components will work


3 :: Why is it important to use source control software for source code?

Modification history.Code ownership: Multiple people can not modify the same code at the same time.


4 :: What two methods are called from the ObjectContext object to inform MTS that the transaction was successful or unsuccessful?

SetComplete and SetAbort.


5 :: What is the tool used to configure the port range and protocols for DCOM communications?



6 :: What does Option Explicit refer to?

All variables must be declared before use. Their type is not required.


7 :: What are the different ways to Declare and Instantiate an object in VB 6?

Dim obj as OBJ.CLASS with eitherSet obj = New OBJ.CLASS orSet obj = CreateObject(OBJ.CLASS?) orSet obj = GetObject( , OBJ.CLASS?)orDim obj as New OBJ.CLASS


8 :: Name the four different cursor types in ADO and describe them briefly.

Forward Only Fastest, can only move forward in recordset

Static Can move to any record in the recordset.

Data is static and never changes.

KeySet Changes are detectable, records that are deleted by other users are unavailable


9 :: Name the four different locking type in ADO and describe them briefly.

LockPessimistic Locks the row once after any edits occur.LockOptimistic Locks the row only when Update is called.LockBatchOptimistic Allows Batch Updates.LockReadOnly Read only. Can not alter the data.


10 :: Describe Database Connection pooling (relative MTS )?

This allows MTS to reuse database connections. Database connections are put to sleep as opposed to being created and destroyed and are activated upon request.


11 :: What are the ADO objects?

ADO Connection Connects to a data source;

collectionCommand Executes commands to the data source. Is the only object that can accept parameters for a stored procedure.

Recordset The set of data returned from the database.


12 :: Under the ADO Command Object, what collection is responsible for input to stored procedures?

The Parameters collection.


13 :: What are some benefits of using MTS?

Database Pooling, 
Transactional operations,
Remote Execution.


14 :: What is the benefit of wrapping database calls into MTS transactions?

If database calls are made within the context of a transaction, aborting the transaction will undo and changes that occur within that transaction. This removes the possibility of stranded, or partial data.


15 :: Describe and In Process vs. Out of Process component. Which is faster?

An in-process component is implemented as a DLL, and runs in the same process space as its client app, enabling the most efficient communication between client and component.Each client app that uses the component starts a new instance of it.An out of process component is implemented as an EXE, and unlike a dll, runs in its own process space. 
As a result, exe’s are slower then dll’s because communications between client and component must be marshalled across process boundaries. A single instance of an out of process component can service many clients.


16 :: What are the main components of the ADO object model? How are they used?

Connection: Used to make a connection between your app and an external data source, ie, sql server.

Command: Used to build queries, including user-specific parameters, to access records from a data source (which are returned in a Recordset

Recordset:Used to access records returned from an SQL query. With a recordset, you can navigate returned records. You can also add, modify or delete records.


17 :: Can We create CGI scripts in VB?

Yes we can create CGI scripts in VB


18 :: Dim x, y as integer. What is x and y data type?

X as variant and y as integer.


19 :: What is Centralization Error Handling?

A function is called when error occurs.


20 :: What is frx? What is frx?

When some controls like grid and third party control placed in our application then it will create frx in run time.


21 :: What is the Dll required for running the VB?



22 :: Why we use Treeview Control in VB?

To list the hierarchical list of the node objects. Such of files and Directories.


23 :: Handling Error in Calling chain.

This will call the top most error where the error is handled.


24 :: In project properties if we set Unattended what is it mean?

This cannot have user interface. This can be used for the COM creation.


25 :: What is the size of the variant data type?

The Variant data type has a numeric storage size of 16 bytes and can contain data up to the range of a Decimal, or a character storage size of 22 bytes (plus string length),and can store any character text.


26 :: What is view Port in VB?

The area under container provides the view of the ActiveX Document is known as a view port.


27 :: What are the different types of error in VB?

Syntax Errors,                      Runtime ,                  Logic.


28 :: What is the diff between the Std and Class Module in VB?

Std Global with in the project. Cls Global through out the all project only thing is we want to set the type lib. Class Modules can be Instantiated.


29 :: What is Mixed Cursors in VB?

Static + Keyset


30 :: Drag and Drop state numbers and functions in VB?

State 0 Source control is being dragged with the range of a target.
1 Out of the range of a target.
2 One position in the target to another.


31 :: What are the Style Properties of Combo Box in VB?

Simple, Dropdown list We can type and select. Dropdown Combo Only Drop Down.


32 :: What are the Style properties of List Box in VB?

Simple Single Select , Extended. Multiple Select.


33 :: What is Collection Objects in VB?

Similarly to arrays but is preferred over an array because of the following reasons.
1. A collection objects uses less Memory than an array.
2. It provides methods to add and delete members.
3. It does not required reason statement when objects are added or deleted.
4. It does not have boundary limitations.


34 :: What is the difference between Property Get, Set and Let?

Set Value is assigned to ActiveX Object from the form.
Let Value is retried to ActiveX Object from the form.
Get- Assigns the value of an expression to a variable or property.


35 :: How to change the Mouse Pointer?

Screen.MousePointer = VBHourGlass/VBNormal.


36 :: What is Friend Variable?

Scope sharable between projects.


37 :: What is DBFailError?

Rolls Back updates if any errors Occurs.


38 :: What are the record set types?

RdOpenFowardOnly 0 (Default used only for the read only purpose)
RdOpenStatic 1
RdOpenDynamic 2
RdOpenKeySet 3 (Normally used for the live project)


39 :: What is the diff between RDO and ADO?

RDO is Hierarchy model where as ADO is Object model. ADO can access data from both flat files as well as the data bases. I.e., It is encapsulation of DAO, RDO , OLE that is why we call it as OLE-DB Technology.


40 :: Diff types of Lock Types?

RdConcurReadOnly 0 (Default)
RdConcurLock 1 (Pessimistic Locking)
RdConcurRowver 2 (Optimistic Lociking)
RdConcurValues 3
RdConcurBatch 4


41 :: What are the scopes of the class?



42 :: Have you create Properties and Methods for your own Controls?

Properties Public variable of a Class
Method Public procedure of a class


43 :: Private Dim x as integer. Valid ?

Private cannot be used in front of DIM.


44 :: Different type of Instantiation in VB?

Private Only for the Specific Module.
Public not creatable Private & Public
Multi Use - Variable we have to declare.
Single Use Not possible through dll.
Global Multiuse Have variable not Required to Declare.
Global Single Use - Only for exe.


45 :: What are the different types of Dialog Box in VB?

User Defined.


46 :: What is Seek Method which type of record set is available this?

Only in DbOpenTables.
Syntax: rs.index = "empno" "=" , 10
If with our setting the rs.index then run time error will occur.


47 :: What is Zorder Method?

Object.Zorder = 1 or 0 Place a Specified mdiform form or control at the front or back of the z-order with n its Graphical Level.

48 :: Can us able to set Instancing properties like Singleuse, GlobalSingleuse to ActiveXDll?



49 :: What are properties available in Clip Board?

No Properties Available. Only the methods they are SetText, 


50 :: What is the different between Microsoft ODBC Driver and Oracle OBDC Driver?

Microsoft ODBC driver will support all the methods and properties of Visual Basic. Where as the Oracle not.


51 :: What the RDO Methods and Events?

Methods Events
Begin Trans Validate
Commit Trans Reposition
Rollback Trans Error
Cancel Query Complied
Update Controls
Update row


52 :: What is MAPI in VB?

Messaging Application programming Interface.


53 :: What are the locks available in Visual Basic?

Locking is the process by which a DBMS restricts access to a row in a multi-user environment 4 types of locks. They are
1. Batch Optimistic
2. Optimistic
3. Pessimistic
4. ReadOnly


54 :: Diff type of Datatypes in VB?

LOB (Large Object Data type).
CLOB (Stores Character Objects).
BLOB ( Store Binary Objects such as Graphic, Video Chips and Sound files).
BFILE(Store file pointers to LOB It may Contain filename for photo’s store on CD_ROM).


55 :: What is Tabstrip control?

Libraries of procedure external to the application




SQL Server  

8.      Different Type of joins Inner join/right join/left join/outer join/ cross join/Anti Join, Inner join Return Matching records from both table; left join return all rows from left table and any  matching rows from right table: Outer join is used when need to return a record even if there is no matching records; 

A cross join that does not have a WHERE clause produces the Cartesian product of the tables involved in the join. The size of a Cartesian product result set is the number of rows in the first table multiplied by the number of rows in the second table. Ant join is a join using not exist key word. 


9.      Different type of outer joins  

Left outer join/right outer join/full outer join 


10.   Difference between union OR and Distinct OR  

Union return unique result from 2 or more selects 

Distinct return unique result from 1 select 


11.   Difference type of indexes tables?   Clustered/NonClustered 


12.   What is derived table?  

A table stored in memory by using a select statement in script 

A SQL derived table is created with a nested select statement, as in the following example:      select * from (select * from table_1) derived_table_1 


13.   Difference between views and Table 

View is created by selecting from multiple tables. 


14.   The HAVING clause is used in combination with the GROUP BY clause. It can be used in a SELECT statement to filter the records that a GROUP BY returns. 



15.   What is early and late binding?  

An object is early bound when it is assigned to a variable declared to be of a specific object type: string s = Hello; 

an object is late bound when it is assigned to a variable declared to be of type Object 

You should use early-bound objects whenever possible, because they allow the compiler to make important optimizations  


16.   Difference between Value type and reference type?  Value type hold value in itself, reference type hold value at memory address. 


17.   What is boxing and unboxing?  

Convert value type to type object, unboxing is reverse 


18.   What is Static class?  

A class can be declared static, indicating that it contains only static members. It is not possible to create instances of a static class, because it is belong to the type rather than instance of the type. 


19.   What is singleton class?     allow for single allocations and instances of data, 

C#:    static readonly SiteStructure _instance = new SiteStructure(); 


20.   What is different type of Access modifiers for Class?  

Private –own class 

Protected – own and derived class 

Friend – within the same assembly 



21.   Can we’ve multiple versions of JQuery in web application? Yes 


22.   How to initialize JQuery?  


// do jQuery  



A few interview question:  

23.   What are the different ways of maintaining a session?  

Session and view state variable 


24.   Where do you store the session?  



25.   When you have a class object what do you do so that it gets stored?  

Create an instance, then store it in session 


26.   How do you get the 2nd highest record from a table? What kind of query would you write for that?  

Select top 1 tableA.B from TableA  

Where tableA.B< (Select Max(B) from TableA) order by B desc 


27.   What are the page lifecycle events i.e. what happens from the time you request a page?  

Preini / ini / complete ini / preload / load / event handler / complete load / prerender / render / complete render 


28.   Which page fires first, the master or the child?  Child page is content page, fires first 


29.      If you wanted to keep track of visitors to your website where would you store that variable and where would you increment that counter and how would you do that? 

Application state variable 


30.      How many times does session start fire?  

Global.asax file, also known as the ASP.NET application file, is an optional file that contains code for responding to application-level and session-level events raised by ASP.NET 


31.      What protocol does Ajax use in a page callback? Post 


32.      If you want all the records from table A only, how would you do that?  

Select A.* from tableA left join tableB 


33.      What are the different types of table indexes, and what are the differences between the two? Clustered/NonClustered 


34.      OOP concepts – encapsulation / polymophyms  

Abstract Class: a blue print of a class without implementation, must be inherited

Polymophyms: base class with implementation can be inherited by other class


35.      What is the difference between static and Non Static classes?  

Static does not need instantiate, it belongs to type rather than instance of type 


36.      What are the different modifiers a method can have?  

public indicates the method is freely accessible inside and outside of the class internal means the method is only accessible in the same assembly. 

protected means the method is accessible in the type in which it is defined, and in derived types of that type. This is used to give derived classes access to the methods in their base class. 

protected internal means the method is accessible to types defined in the same assembly or to types in a derived assembly.  

private methods are only accessible in the class in which they are defined. 


37.      Have you used exception handling in WCF?  

WCF has an excellent built-in extensibility mechanism for converting exceptions to faults. This extensibility point can be consumed through the IErrorHandler interface, which provides two methods: HandleError and ProvideFault. 


38.   How do you handle content exception?  

Use Application_Error handler in your Global.asax file, and direct to another page 


39.     What is global.asa??  

The Global.asa file is an optional file that can contain declarations of objects, variables, and methods that can be accessed by every page in an ASP application. 

Application events 

Session events 

<object> declarations 

TypeLibrary declarations 

the #include directive 


40.     When asp page is posted back to server The processing cycle for an ASP.NET Web page is this: 

The user requests the page. (The page is requested using an HTTP GET method.) The page runs for the first time 

The page dynamically renders markup to the browser, which the user sees as a Web page similar to any other page. 

The user types information or selects from choices and then clicks a button.  

The page is posted to the Web server. (The browser performs an HTTP POST method, which in ASP.NET is referred to as a postback.) Specifically, the page is posted back to itself  

On the Web server, the page runs again. The information that the user typed or selected is available to the page. 

The page performs the processing that you have programmed it to do. 

The page renders itself back to the browser. 


41.     Class we define is value type or reference type? Reference type, value type is structure 


42.     String builder class  

A string instance is immutable. You cannot change it after it was created; 

Stringbuilder can be used as a mutable string so is good for when you need to change a string a lot 


43.     Can we declare string builder = “” – implementation?  

Dim builder As New StringBuilder 


44     What is reference parameter?  

static void Swap(ref int x, ref int y) 

Sub Calculate(ByVal rate As Double, ByRef debt As Double) 


45.     When we delete/update record what happen in clustered index?  

The clustered index is the physical table, so whenever you update any row, you're updating the clustered index 


46.     How many clustered index can we’ve in table? 1, pk 


47.     What do you understand by at identity?? What it do?? @@Identity returns the clustered index of last operation 


48. ADO.Net – data reader and data set  

Reading while loading, connected 

Read all at once, disconnected


49.     How to prevent class from being inherited? NotInheritable, Sealed


50.     What are Delegate and event – can class have event or not??

A delegate is a class that can hold a reference to a method

An event is a message sent by an object to signal the occurrence of an action

Public Delegate Sub AlarmEventHandler(sender As Object, e As AlarmEventArgs)

Public Class WakeMeUp

       Public Sub AlarmRang(sender As Object, e As AlarmEventArgs)

       End Sub

End Class


51.     Ajax – what update panel does?

UpdatePanel controls work by specifying regions of a page that can be updated without refreshing the whole page. This process is coordinated by the ScriptManager server control and the client PageRequestManager class

52.      Generic in .Net? Generics are classes, structures, interfaces, and methods that have placeholders (type parameters) for one or more of the types that they store or use

                Public Shared Sub Main()

         Dim g As New Generic(Of String)

                     g.Field = A string

                     Console.WriteLine(Generic.Field           = {0}, g.Field)

                End Sub


53.      WPF: presentation system for building Windows client applications with visually stunning user experiences; WPF exists as a subset of .NET Framework types that are located in the System.Windows namespace


54.      WSDL? WSDL is an XML format for describing network services as a set of endpoints operating on messages containing either document-oriented or procedure-oriented information. SOAP is used to transfer the data, WSDL is used for describing the services. asmx file to create and contains your service implementation and is needed for hosting the service.



55.      Hashclass: represents a collection of key/value pairs that are organized based on the hash code of the key.


56.      What is Scrum?

As a brief introduction, Scrum is a process used for agile software development. With Scrum, projects progress via a series of iterations called sprints. Each sprint is typically 2-4 weeks long and sprint planning is essential. While an agile approach can be used for managing any project, Scrum is ideally suited for projects with rapidly changing or highly emergent requirements


57.      Serialization is the process of converting the state of an object into a byte stream that can be persisted or transported. The complement of serialization is deserialization, which converts a stream into an object. the serialized data are stored into a byte stream, an object that derives from System.IO.Stream; The deserialization is handled by a method called Deserialize This operation takes the byte stream and tries to fill object members.


58.      session variable stored in http cookies


59.      <%# Bind(“”)%> and <%# Eval(“”) %> are the same for readonly databind, for update databind and keep value updated use <%# Bind(“”)%>


60.      Visual C# .NET may have a few more power features such as handling unmanaged code, and Visual Basic .NET may be skewed a little toward ease of use by providing features such as late binding.


61.    Overriding is redefine a method from a parent class; Overloading is two methods with same name but different signatures in the same class


62.    3 components for Object Oriented Programming is Polymophism, Inheritance, and Encapsolution


63.    Virtual means enable overriding for derived class; Sealed means not inheritable


1. DOM - API for HTML, It represents a web page as a tree. In other words, DOM shows how to access HTML page.

2. DOCTYPE is used 1) for validation, 2) specifies the version of HTML

3.  Cell spacing controls the space between table cells by defining the pixel width
    Cell padding controls the amount of space between the contents of the cell from the cell wall

5. The attributes that make up DHTML are HTML, JavaScript, CSS, to increase the interactive ability and the visual effect

6. The <meta> tag provides metadata about the HTML document.

7. We use <script > tag to indicate javascript in html

8.  iframe is used for creating an inline or floating frame and is used to embed or insert content on a page.


9. Div is used to select a block of text so that one can apply styles to it. Span is used to select inline text and apply styles to it.

10. How do you code headings in HTML

<h1>Heading 1</h1>

11. How will you insert an video clip into HTML? <embed src= width= Height=/>

12. Empty elements in html is that element have no value inside the opening and closing tag.

13. HTML 4 document is composed of three parts: A line containing HTML version information, A declarative header section (delimited by the HEAD element), A body section

14. Is it possible in HTML to add more than one submit button having different actions in a single form?

No we can't give two actions for a single form. but we can achieve this by using javascript


15. HTML 4.0 is based on SGML, HTML 5 is not


16. How can you show different language on web page through HTML link? <lang> tag

17. how to know it is netscape dHTML or Microsoft dHTML ? Netscape offers <layer> tag

19. How do I hide my source?
You can't. The source is necessary for the browser to display your document.

20. For what screen size should I write?  HTML does not depend on screen size.

21. HTML, or HyperText Markup Language, In HTML, a tag tells the browser what to do.

22. Frames allow an author to divide a browser window into multiple (rectangular) regions.

23. HTML uses SGML comment syntax to do comment <!-- This is a comment. -->

24. nest tables within tables? yes, a table can be embedded inside a cell in another table

25. How do we specify page breaks in HTML? You can't.



1.       Can you store multiple data types in System.Array? No.

2.      What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()?          

The first one performs a deep copy of the array, the second one is shallow.

3.      How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order? By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods.

4.      What’s the .NET datatype that allows the retrieval of data by a unique key? HashTable.

5.      What’s class SortedList underneath? A sorted HashTable.

6.      Will finally block get executed if the exception had not occurred? Yes.

7.      Can multiple catch blocks be executed? No, once the proper catch code fires off, the control is transferred to the finally block (if there are any), and then whatever follows the finally block.

8.      Why is it a bad idea to throw your own exceptions? Well, if at that point you know that an error has occurred, then should write code  to handle the error right there.

9.      What’s a delegate? A delegate object encapsulates a reference to a method. In C++ as pointers.

10.    What’s a multicast delegate? It’s a delegate that points to and eventually fires off several methods.

11.     How’s the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET? Assembly versioning allows the application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was available under Win32), but also the version of the assembly.

12.    What are the ways to deploy an assembly? An MSI installer, a CAB archive, and XCOPY command.

13.    What’s a satellite assembly? When you write a multilingual or multi-cultural application in .NET, and want to distribute the core application separately from the localized modules, the localized assemblies that modify the core application are called satellite assemblies.

14.    What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application? System.Globalization, System.Resources.

15.    What’s the difference between // comments, /* */ comments and /// comments? Single-line, multi-line and XML documentation comments.

16.    How do you generate documentation from the C# file commented properly with a command-line compiler? Compile it with a /doc switch.

17.    What’s the difference between <c> and <code> XML documentation tag? Single line code example and multiple-line code example.

18.    Is XML case-sensitive? Yes, so <Student> and <student> are different elements.

19.    What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK? CorDBG – command-line debugger, and DbgCLR – graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET uses the DbgCLR.

20.   What does the This window show in the debugger? It points to the object that’s pointed to by this reference. Object’s instance data is shown.

21.    What does assert() do? In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false. The program if the condition is true.

22.    What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class? Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace class for both debug and release builds.

23.    Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected? To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor.

24.   How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application? Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger.

25.    What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing? Positive test cases (correct data, correct output), negative test cases (broken or missing data, proper handling), exception test cases

26.   Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application? Yes, Immediate window.

27.    What are advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft-provided data provider classes in ADO.NET? SQLServer.NET data provider is high-speed /robust,and requires SQL Server license from Microsoft. OLE-DB.NET is universal for accessing other sources, like Oracle, DB2,, but it’s a .NET layer on top of OLE layer, so not the fastest. ODBC.NET is provided for backward compatibility to ODBC engines.

28.   What is the wildcard character in SQL? Let’s say you want to query database with LIKE for all employees whose name starts with La. The wildcard character is %,.

29.   Explain ACID rule of thumb for transactions. Transaction must be Atomic,Consistent (data is either committed or roll back), Isolated , Durable (the values persist if the data had been committed even if the system crashes right after).

30.   What connections does Microsoft SQL Server support? Windows Authentication (via Active Directory) and SQL Server authentication (via Microsoft SQL Server username and passwords).

31.    Which one is trusted and which one is untrusted? Windows Authentication is trusted because the username and password are checked with the Active Directory, the SQL Server authentication is untrusted.

32.    Why would you use untrusted verificaion? Web Services and  non-Windows applications uses it.

33.    What does the parameter Initial Catalog define inside Connection String? The database name

34.   What’s the data provider name to connect to Access database? Microsoft.Access.

35.    What does Dispose method do with the connection object? Deletes it from the memory.

36.   What is a pre-requisite for connection pooling? Multiple processes must agree that they will share the same connection, where every parameter is the same, including the security settings.

37.    How can I run an EXE from within my application? Process class found in the System.Diagnostics namespace

38.   How can I find all programs with a GUI (not just arbitrary windows) that are running on my local machine? static Process.GetProcesses() found in the System.Diagnostics namespace

39.   How can I get a list of all processes running on my system? Process.GetProcesses(System.Environment.MachineName

40.   How do I get the path to my running EXE? Dns.GetHostByName(Dns.GetHostName()).AddressList

41.    How do you prevent serialization of certain child controls in your Composite Control? use a panel that has a picturebox placed on it with DockStyle.Fill. then picturebox assume the size of the panel.


42.  How can I see what is installed in the Global Assembly on a machine? Application class has a static member ExecutablePath that has this information.


43.   How do I programatically change the color of a control? BackColor/ForeColor property

44.   It possible to call macros as part of a Visual Studio.NET command line build? starting a new thread and executing Application.Run


45.   How do I intercept event subscription of a event in my base class? Use override if the base class property was marked as Overridable public new event EventHandler Click.


46.   VB.NET can perform autoformatting for code that may not be properly formatted


47.   What does it mean by anchoring of controls?
the property of the control to keep a specific distance with a particular edge of the window

48.   What does it mean by docking of controls?
property of the control to attach itself to a particular edge of the window


49.   How to use the Splitter control? Is used to resize other controls.


50.   How can I access a Website/Webpage with a VB.NET LinkLabel control?
In the  LinkLabel LinkClicked Event: System.Diagnostics.Process.Start(

51.    How do I add a control to windows form at runtime?
To add a control to a Form at Runtime, Form.Controls.Add(controlname) function.

52.    How do I access controls  on another Form? Form.Controls.find(“controlname”)

53.    What is a Tooltip control and how should I use it? displays some text when an ojects Mouse Over event is triggered.


54.   What is Visual Studio.NET? it is an integrated development environment


55.    How are projects different from the namespaces?
A Project (assembly) is a physical grouping of the source code and resource files that stored into some files. A namespace is a logical grouping of related types which not necessarily reside into same assembly.


56.   You can access variables declared in the Try block inside the Catch handler. False


57.    You don’t need to specify a default value for an optional parameter. False


58.   TCP, UDP, and HTTP data transmissions: TCP is connection-oriented protocol. When a file sent, it will get delivered unless connection fails. UDP is connection less protocol. When send a data you don't know if it'll get there; HTTP round trip;


59.   Avoid deadlock problems in a multithreaded application? The best practice would be by defining a class for your thread and use only non-static fields from this class in your thread so your threads won't be sharing any memory.


60.   Entity Framework is an additional layer between application and database, it enables developers to program against conceptual application model instead of against relational storage schema


61.    Lazyloading is the process an entity or a collection of entities automatically loaded from database when a property first time reference the entity or entities.


62.   Entity Framework Truncate table : context.ExecuteStorecommand(“truncate table table1”)


63.   Every entity must have a primary key. When using entity designer to create a model, the class inherits from entity object and it requires a entity key.

64.   Entity Framework key words: Set primary key – [Key], foreign key – [ForeignKey(“name”)], required – [required], max/min length – [maxlength(500, errormessage=””)], [minlength(10, errormessage=””)]


65.   Disable lazyloading : configuration.Lazyloadingenable = false;


66.   JIT compile MSIL to Native code


67.   Shared assembly is used by multiple applications with a strong name;

68.   GAC stores assemblies to be shared by multiple applications on the computer


69.   Jquery is a javascript library or javascript framework, it reduces the amount of code in javascript. Jquery is not a language.


70.   Jquery advantage: provide effect and amination/ add or modify css/ ajax support / cool plugin / event handling/ dom selection event


71.    Provide effect: show/hide/toggle/fadein/fadeout

72.    Linq is a set extension of .Net framework, it  introduce query as first class concept into .Net languages, it enables debugging query is compile time, it is type safe because it is checked at compile time, it is build into dll. But Linq is slower than stored procedure because it is compiled before execution.



1. What is WPF?WPF is the latest presentation API by Microsoft Windows. It is 2D and 3D graphic engine.

2. What are the types of documents supported by WPF?Two types of the documents supported by Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) are the Flow format and fixed Format document.

3. Name the namespace required for working with 3D.The namespace required for working in 3D is System.Windows.Media.Medi3D.

4. Is it right to say that WPF has replaced DirectX?No, WPF can never replace DirectX. 

5. What are dependency properties?Properties that belong to a specific class but can be used for another are called the dependency properties.

6. How can the size of StatusBar be increased proportionally? By overruling the ItemsPanel attribute of StatusBar with a grid. 

7. What are Freezable objects in WPF?An object, which has its state locked down, so that it becomes unchangeable, is known as a freezable object. 

8. How is Silverlight different from WPF browser application?

One of the major differences is that .NET framework is required for running WPF browser applications on the client machine. But Silverlight runs using only the plug-in.

9. Name the methods present in the DependencyObject? SetValue; ClearValue; GetValue

10. Write about PRISM. PRISM is a framework for creating complex applications for WPF 

11. Is it possible to use Windows Forms in a WPF application?Yes, Windows form can be used in WPF. Windows form can appear as a WPF pop. 

12. Is MDI supported in WPF? No

13. Describe CustomControl briefly. CustomControl widens the functions of existing controls. 

14. Name the common assemblies used in WPF? PresentationFoundation; WindowsBase; PresentaionCore

15. Define Path animations in WPF?Path animation is a type of animation in which the animated object follows a path set by the Path geometry.

16. Can WPF applications be made without XAML?Yes 

17. What are the types of windows in WPF? Normal Window; Page Window; Navigate Window

18. How can elements in a ListBox be sorted? System.ComponentModel.SortDescription instances.

19. How is MVVM different from MVC? MVC stands for Model-View Controller and.MVVM stands for Model-View ViewModel. 

20. Explain Routed events in WPF.An event, which can invoke handlers on more than one listeners present in an element tree. 

21. What are the various layout panels in WPF? Stack Panel; Grid Panel; Canvas Panel; Dock Panel;Wrap Panel

22. What does BAML mean in WPF? BAML is the abbreviation for Binary Application Markup Language. It is nothing but XAML that has been tokenized. 

23. What is Difference between Page and Window Controls in WPF? Window Control presides over Windows Application while Page Control presides over the hosted Browser Applications. Also, Window control may contain Page Control, but the reverse cannot happen.

24. What are Attached Properties in WPF? Attached properties are basically Dependency Properties that allows the attachment of a value to any random object.

25. What is the method to force close a ToolTip, which is currently visible? It can be closed by setting the tooltip’s IsOpen property to false.

26. Write the differences between DynamicResource and StaticResource.The most basic difference is that StaticResource evaluates the resource one time only, but DynamicResource evaluates it every time the resource is required.

27. Write about UserControl in brief.UserControl wraps existing controls into a single reusable group. 

28. What is the way to determine if a Freezable object is Frozen? “IsFrozen” property of the object can be used to determine if the freezable object is frozen.

29. How to make a ToolTip appear while hovering over a disabled element?  ShowOnDisabled property

30. Where does the execution start in a WPF application? Visual Studio attaches a Build Action of ApplicationDefinition to the XAML file. This results in the auto generation of a Main method.

31. Can Windows Service be created Using WPF? NO

32. What are the different kinds of Routed events in WPF? Direct; Tunneling; Bubbling

33. State the name of the classes, which contain arbitrary content.Content Control; HeaderedContent Control; Items Control; HeaderedItems Control



1. What is the difference between WCF and ASMX Web Services?

Simple and basic difference is that ASMX or ASP.NET web service is designed to send and receive messages using SOAP over HTTP only. While WCF can exchange messages using any format (SOAP is default) over any transport protocol (HTTP, TCP/IP, MSMQ, NamedPipes etc).

2. What are WCF Service Endpoints? Explain.

For Windows Communication Foundation services to be consumed, it’s necessary that it must be exposed; Clients need information about service to communicate with it. This is where service endpoints play their role.

A WCF service endpoint has three basic elements i.e. Address, Binding and Contract.

·        Address: It defines WHERE. Address is the URL that identifies the location of the service.

·        Binding: It defines HOW. Binding defines how the service can be accessed.

·        Contract: It defines WHAT. Contract identifies what is exposed by the service.

3. What are the possible ways of hosting a WCF service? Explain.

For a Windows Communication Foundation service to host, we need at least a managed process, a ServiceHost instance and an Endpoint configured. Possible approaches for hosting a service are:

A.     Hosting in a Managed Application/ Self Hosting

a.      Console Application

b.     Windows Application

c.      Windows Service

B.      Hosting on Web Server

a.      IIS 6.0 (ASP.NET Application supports only HTTP)

b.     Windows Process Activation Service (WAS) i.e. IIS 7.0 supports HTTP, TCP, NamedPipes, MSMQ.


4. How we can achieve Operation Overloading while exposing WCF Services?

By default, WSDL doesn’t support operation overloading. Overloading behavior can be achieved by using Name property of OperationContract attribute.

interface IMyCalculator
   [OperationContract(Name = SumInt)]
   int Sum(int arg1,int arg2);
   [OperationContract(Name = SumDouble)]
   double Sum(double arg1,double arg2);

When the proxy will be generated for these operations, it will have 2 methods with different names i.e. SumInt and SumDouble.


5. What Message Exchange Patterns (MEPs) supported by WCF? Explain each of them briefly.            1. Request/Response 2. One Way 3. Duplex


It’s the default pattern. In this pattern, a response message will always be generated to consumer when the operation is called, even with the void return type. Response will have empty SOAP body.

One Way

In some cases, we are interested to send a message to service in order to execute certain business functionality but not interested in receiving anything back. OneWay MEP will work in such scenarios. If we want queued message delivery, OneWay is the only available option.


The Duplex MEP is basically a two-way message channel. In some cases, we want to send a message to service to initiate some longer-running processing and require a notification back from service in order to confirm that the requested process has been completed.


6. What is DataContractSerializer and How its different from XmlSerializer?

Serialization is the process of converting an object instance to a portable and transferable format. So, whenever we are talking about web services, serialization is very important.

Windows Communication Foundation has DataContractSerializer that is opt-in approach as compared to XmlSerializer that uses opt-out. Opt-in means specify whatever we want to serialize while Opt-out means you don’t have to specify each and every property to serialize, specify only those you don’t want to serialize. DataContractSerializer is about 10% faster than XmlSerializer but it has almost no control over how the object will be serialized. If we wanted to have more control over how object should be serialized that XmlSerializer is a better choice.


7. How we can use MessageContract partially with DataContract for a service operation in WCF?

MessageContract must be used all or none. If we are using MessageContract into an operation signature, then we must use MessageContract as the only parameter type and as the return type of the operation.


8. Which standard binding could be used for a service that was designed to replace an existing ASMX web service?

The basicHttpBinding standard binding is designed to expose a service as if it is an ASMX/ASP.NET web service. This will enable us to support existing clients as applications are upgrade to WCF.


9. Please explain briefly different Instance Modes in WCF? WCF will bind an incoming message request to a particular service instance, so the available modes are:

·        Per Call: instance created for each call, most efficient in term of memory but need to maintain session.

·        Per Session: Instance created for a complete session of a user. Session is maintained.

·        Single: Only one instance created for all clients/users and shared among all.Least efficient in terms of memory.

10. Please explain different modes of security in WCF? Or Explain the difference between Transport and Message Level Security.

In Windows Communication Foundation, we can configure to use security at different levels

a. Transport Level security means providing security at the transport layer itself. When dealing with security at Transport level, we are concerned about integrity, privacy and authentication of message as it travels along the physical wire.

            <binding name=netTcpTransportBinding>
               <security mode=Transport>
                          <Transport clientCredentialType=Windows />

b. Message Level Security For Tranport level security, we actually ensure the transport that is being used should be secured but in message level security, we actually secure the message. We encrypt the message before transporting it.

             <binding name=wsHttpMessageBinding>
               <security mode=Message>
                           <Message clientCredentialType=UserName />

It totally depends upon the requirements but we can use a mixed security mode also as follows:

             <binding name=basicHttp>
               <security mode=TransportWithMessageCredential>
                          <Transport />
                               <Message clientCredentialType=UserName />


11. What is WCF?

Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) is an SDK for developing and  deploying services on Windows. WCF provides a runtime environment for services, enabling you to expose CLR types as services. WCF is Microsoft’s unified programming model for building service-oriented applications with managed code.



Q 1- What is the difference between HTML and HTML5 ?

Ans: HTML5 is upgraded version of HTML; HTML5 has new future like Video, Audio/mp3, date select function , placeholder , Canvas, so that no need to do external plugin like Flash player or other library. HTML5 is the latest version of HTML standard supporting multimedia and graphical content. Cleaner markup; new elements like <header>, <nav>, and <time>; New form input types and attributes that will (and in Opera’s case, do) take the hassle out of scripting forms.

Q 2- What is the <!DOCTYPE> ? Is it necessary to use in HTML5 ?

Ans: The <!DOCTYPE> is an instruction to the web browser about what version of HTML the page is written in. AND The <!DOCTYPE> tag does not have an end tag and It is not case sensitive.

The <!DOCTYPE> declaration must be the very first thing in HTML5 document, before the <html> tag. because HTML 4.01 was based on Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), so need DTD. WHERE AS HTML5 is not based on SGML, so no need a Document Type Definition (DTD).


Q 3- How many New Markup Elements you know in HTML5? New Markup Elements in HTML5




Specifies independent/self-contained content, such as blog post


For content aside from the content it is placed in, should related to the surrounding content


For text that should not be bound to the text-direction of its parent elements


A button, or a radiobutton, or a checkbox


For describing details about a document, or parts of a document


A caption, or summary, inside the details element


For grouping a section of stand-alone content, could be a video


The caption of the figure section


For a footer of a document or section, could include the name of the author, the date of the document, contact information, or copyright information


For an introduction of a document or section, could include navigation


For a section of headings


For a section of navigation


The state of a work in progress


Q 4- What are the New Media Elements in HTML5? Is canvas element used in HTML5

Ans: New Media Elements have added in HTML5; yes, Canvas element in html5 <canvas></canvas>




For multimedia content, sounds, music or other audio streams


For video content, such as a movie clip or other video streams


For media resources for media elements, defined inside video or audio


For embedded content, such as a plug-in


For text tracks used in mediaplayers


Q 5- Do you know New Input Type Attribute in HTML5

Ans: Yes we can use below new input type Attribute in HTML5




The input is of type telephone number


The input field is a search field




One or more email addresses


A date and/or time


A date


A month


A week


The input value is of type time


A local date/time


A number


Q 6- How to add video and audio in HTML5

Ans: The canvas element is used to draw images on a web page by using javascript like below

add video in html5view plaincopy to clipboardprint?

1.  <video width=“320″ height=“240″ controls=“controls”>

2.  <source src=“mysong.mp4″ type=“video/mp4″ />

3.  <source src=“mysong.ogg” type=“video/ogg” />

4.  </video>

And audio like thisview plaincopy to clipboardprint?

1.  <audio controls=“controls”>

2.  <source src=“mysong.ogg” type=“audio/ogg” />

3.  <source src=“mysong.mp3″ type=“audio/mpeg” />

4.  </audio>


Q 7- What is the use of localStorage in HTML5?

Ans: Before HTML5 LocalStores was done with cookies. Cookies are not very good for large amounts of data, because they are passed on by every request to the server, so it was very slow and in-effective. In HTML5, the data is NOT passed on by every server request, but used ONLY when asked for. It is possible to store large amounts of data without affecting the website’s performance.and The data is stored in different areas for different websites, and a website can only access data stored by itself.

And for creating localstores just need to call localStorage object like below we are storing name and addressview plaincopy to clipboardprint?

1.  <script type=“text/javascript”>


3.  document.write(;

4.  </script>

5.  <script type=“text/javascript”>

6.  localStorage.address=“Newyork USA”;

7.  document.write(localStorage.address);

8.     </script>

Q 8- What is the sessionStorage Object in html5 ? How to create and access?

Ans: The sessionStorage object stores the data for one session. The data is deleted when the user closes the browser window. like below we can create and access a sessionStorage here we created “name” as sessionview plaincopy to clipboardprint?

1.  <script type=“text/javascript”>


3.  document.write(;

4.     </script>


Q 9- What the use of Canvas Element in HTML5?

Ans: The canvas element is used to draw graphics images on a web page by using javascript like belowview plaincopy to clipboardprint?

1.  <canvas id=“pcdsCanvas” width=“500″ height=“400″>

2.  </canvas>

3.  <script type=“text/javascript”>

4.  var pcdsCanvas=document.getElementById(“phpzagCanvas”);

5.  var pcdsText=pcdsCanvas.getContext(“2d”);

6.  pcdsText.fillStyle=“#82345c”;

7.  pcdsText.fillRect(0,0,150,75);

8.     </script>


Q 10- What is the difference between HTMl5 Application cache and regular HTML browser cache?

Ans: HTML5 specification allows browsers to prefetch some or all of a website assets such as HTML files, images, CSS, JavaScript, and so on, while the client is connected. It is not necessary for the user to have accessed this content previously, for fetching this content. In other words, application cache can prefetch pages that have not been visited at all and are thereby unavailable in the regular browser cache. Prefetching files can speed up the site’s performance.



Ans: The canvas element: Canvas consists of a drawable region defined in HTML code with height and width attributes. JavaScript code may access the area through a full set of drawing functions similar to other common 2D APIs, thus allowing for dynamically generated graphics. Some anticipated uses of the canvas include building graphs, animations, games, and image composition.

·        Timed media playback

·        Offline storage database

·        Document editing

·        Drag-and-drop

·        Cross-document messaging

·        Browser history management

·        MIME type and protocol handler registration

Q 12 XPath is a major element in the XSLT standard. XPath uses path expressions to select nodes in an XML document.





1) Explain what is Crystal Reports?

Crystal report is a window based report writer that enables the programmer to make reports from different data sources with a minimum of written code. Crystal report can access data from various data-bases and can synchronize data from multiple databases into a single report.

2) Explain how can you connect crystal report to the databases?

·          Use crystal report built in query

·          Crystal SQL Designer


3) Explain whether it is possible to create our own formulas in crystal reports?

Yes, it is possible to create your own formulas in Crystal reports. For that from insert menu item choose “Formula Field”. Write the formula in “Formula Editor”, here you will see “Function Tree” , “Field Tree” , “Operator Tree” which will show the report fields, functions supported by crystal reports, operators etc.


4) Is it possible to edit SQL made by Crystal Reports?

No, it is not possible to edit SQL made by crystal reports, however you can view the SQL.


5) Explain how can you enhance the performance of Crystal Reports?

·          Avoid using sub-reports as it hampers the performance

·          Use report bursting indexes


6) new features available in SAP Crystal?

·          Streamlines report design

·          Improvement to data sources

·          Mobile and viewer support

·          OEM and developer features


7) Data source that SAP business one supports for Crystal reports?

·          SAP Business One

·          OLE DB (ADO)


8) List out some of the key difference between SSRS and Crystal Report?

·          SSRS has table base design pattern while in CR you can place objects anywhere

·          Export to Excel in SSRS is easy than Crystal Report

·          To manage your data crystal report have several options while SSRS does not have any

·          Crystal report has client side report creation API, that allows the client to modify and create new reports

·          SSRS uses expressions while Crystal Report uses formula in C and basic

·          SSRS is compatible with Share-point list and can generate reports based on lists

·          Both of them support OLAP connections


9) Mention what is the general syntax for creating SAP business one token?

To create SAP business token the general syntax includes

<Parameter Name>@ SELECT….FROM…..WHERE, the SELECT command is not necessary for all tables.


10) Explain how you can edit crystal reports layout in SAP business one?

To edit crystal reports layout in the SAP business one

·          Go to the main menu of the SAP business one -> choose administration ->set up -> General -> Report & Layout Manager

·          In Report & Layout Manager window, in the navigation panel on the left, scroll down to the document type of the layout you need to edit

·          In the work space on the right, select the crystal reports layout you need to edit and select edit


11) Explain how can you create a bar-code in crystal reports?

To create a bar-code in crystal reports, you have to follow the following steps

·          In crystal report, from the main menu -> Click on View -> Design -> Field Explorer

·          Choose formula field and click on New icon on the top of the menu bar

·          Enter the name for the new formula like MYUPCEANBarcode and click OK

·          Now enter the name and argument into the editor UPCA ({items.item_barcode}). The item_barcode is the table name and field name from data source. Click on Save and Close. The function names may be listed under any one of the locations, either in “Functions>additional functions> Visual basic UFLs (u2lcom.dll)” or in “Functions>Additional Functions>COM and.NET UFLs (u212com.dll)”

·          The new function will appear in Field Explorer now, to use it drag/drop it onto the report

·          Drag the field onto the report and configure its font properties

·          Report is ready, click on the preview to see or print


12) how many sub-reports can be added in the MainReport?

In the MainReport, you can add 255 sub reports, and you cannot add sub-report under a sub-report.


13) Explain how can you export crystal report with linked sub-reports into one excel sheet?

·          First create a main report and sub report discretely

·          Now open the main report and in the insert menu, choose sub-report option

·          In sub-report option, “select an existing report”

·          Choose the sub-report that is already created

·          Place the link between the Main report and Sub report with the fields required

·          Now, export the report to Excel Format.


14) how can you burst crystal reports by e-mail?

There are traditionally three methods to burst crystal reports by e-mail

·          Using a PDF tool

·          Using Crystal Reports Scheduler such as CRD

·          Data driven publishing method


15) Mention if there are any limitation of crystal report?

Limitation of crystal report includes

·          If database is having field whose length is more than 255 characters then you cannot make formula using that field

·          Formatting is lost while exporting data

·          By right clicking on the field you can browse data that is in the database and not the data selected by the query


16) Whether we can use our own SQL for creating a report?

You can create your own query by using tool “Crystal SQL Designer”.  You can insert your own SQL statement, it will save your file as “.qry”.  Also, while creating a report instead of using “Database” button use “Crystal SQL Statement” button.


17) Explain what does it mean when you choose Enforce to, Enforce and or Enforce from in Crystal Report?

Enforce and, Enforce to or Enforce from in crystal reports are chose to enforce link created in report. Enforcing a link between tables make sure that the report’s respective SQL uses this link, regardless of whether fields are required from one or both the involved tables.  The default function is unenforced links, which means that the crystal report uses the link only if the report’s respective SELECT statement needs it.